Titles like Saber, Zakki, Vali, Fazel, Vafi, Seddigh, Razi, Serajo`llah, Nouro`l-Hoda, Ghorrato`l-Eino`l-Mo`menin, Kelidato`l-Mohedin, Kafo`l-Malek, Kafia`l-Khalgh, Rabbo`ssarir, and Ra`abo`l-Tadbir are presented by the history to no one other than our beloved 8th Imam,Imam Raza A.S.His nickname is Abo` l Hasan.
Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (A.S.), the eighth Shi`ite Holy Imam was born on 11th Zee al-Qa`adah 148 A.H. in the holy city of Madina. He was divinely entitled `Al-Raza"(meaning that Allah Almighty and His Holy Messenger (S.A.W.) were deeply pleased with him).
His father was the 7th Imam,Imam Musa Kazim A.S and mother Lady Najma.Imam spent 25 years of his sacred life with his father .He took the responsibility of the leadership of the nation for 20 years.This time period was the same when the cruel Abbasi Caliph Haroon ur Rashid ruled.He was the one who killed Imam Raza`s A.S. father,Imam Musa Kazim A.S.Then came the tyrant regime of Haroon`s son Mamoon,another cruel caliph.Mamoon had conflict with his brother Amin.Mamoon had a Persian mother while Amin had Arabian.Mamoon was granted the territory of Merv while Amin inherited Baghdad territory.Mamoon knew that Persians respected Imam A.S. and wanted to win Persians happiness.Hence he plotted a conspiracy against Imam A.S.
Mamoon sent two representatives of his to Madina with a message for Imam Raza A.S.He invited Imam A.S. to Khurasan. Imam A.S.refused the clever request of Mamoon.However, Imam A.S. decided to go to Khurasan when Mamoon started threating severely.Imam A.S. started the unwilling journey to Khurasan.It was difficult decision to leave Madina.Imam had to bid farewell to dearest grave of his grandfather Rasool Allah Hazrat Muahmmad (S.A.A.W).He had to bid farewell to his lovers in Madina.Imam A.S left Madina as an orphan.He knew well the plans of Mamoon but this was his unwanted journey.
Imam once said:
"set me free! I will leave my ancestor`s vicinity ((Mohammad S.A.A.W)) and I will die in a strange land".
Imam A.S reached Khurasan and was greeted by Mamoon.Now Mamoon wanted to play a political game.He would offer Imam A.S the Caliphate.There were two possibilities,both in favour of Mamoon.If Imam A.S accepted the offer,Mamoon would make himself the Crown Prince.If Imam A.S refused ,he would forecibly nominate Imam A.S as his Crown-Prince.He would control the shia rebillions in both possibilities.Mamoon called a meeting of state dignitaries and offered Caliphate to Imam Raza A.S.
: "all behold! I know nobody better and more deserved than Ali-ebne-Mous`a`Reza (AS) in Ali`s and Abbas` dynasty for caliphate".
Imam Reza (AS) said to Ma`moun:
"If God has donated caliphate to you, it`s not permissible giving it to another person, and if caliphate is not yours, it is not under your authority to vest it to the others!"
Mamoon offered then the designation of Crown-Prince to Imam A.S.Imam A.S refused strongly.The process of offering and refusal prolonged for two months.At last Mamoon threatened Imam A.S to die.
Imam Reza (A.S) said:
" Now, I have to accept, provided that I would appoint or dismiss nobody and also I would not change a custom as well as breaking a tradition and I would watch the caliphate`s affairs from the distance."Mamoon accepted.
Mamoon than declared to engage his daughter Umm e Habib with Imam A.S. About accepting the state of crown-prince from Imam (A.S), it is very necessary to notice this issue that Imam Reza (AS) had to save his life to stand against Ma`moun`s hypocritical government and ruin his cultural policies.
Imam A.S by his great personality and deeds impressed every cleric of different schools of thought. They confessed:" We swear to God that Imam Raza A.S is more deserved than Ma`moun for caliphate." Mamoon could not digest the Imam`s popularity. So he organized a ceremony and infected Imam (A.S) with a lethal poison there. Imam`s (A.S) followers transferred his sacred body to Mashad where his tomb was made.Our beloved ImamA.S left his followers on the last day of Safer 203 hijri.